Perfect

Introduction

The present perfect tense indicates either that an action was completed (finished or "perfected") at some point in the past or that the action extends to the present. The present perfect tense is formed with the word has or have. It shows action begun in the past and completed by the time of the present:

Form

N1wa...V-taことがあります。

N1 has had the experience of V-ing. If the present (plain) form is used in this pattern it means it sometimes happens that... or there are case in which.

Use

Example

Naomi has ate some of the bun already.

Example

Naomi has lived in Paris.

Example

Naomi has studied for three years.

Example

James has checked the air in the tires at least three times.

Example

I have read the book you're talking about.

Example

Toきょうへいったことがあります。

I have been to Tokyo.

Example

このtokeiは(tokidoki)susumuことがあります。

This watch sometimes runs fast.

ある

Example

ドアがペイントしてあります。

The door has been painted.

Example

ドアがペイントしてありました。

The door had been painted.

Example

ドアがペイントしてありますか。

Has the door been painted?

はい、してあります。

Yes, it has.

いいえ、してありません。

No, it hasn't.

Example

なにがペイントしてありましたか。

What had been painted?

ドアがペイントしてありました。

The door had.

ない

Example

ドアがペイントしてないです。

The door has not been painted.

Example

ドアがペイントしてなかったです。

The door had not been painted.

Form

VERB-て + いる

have done

Use

Example

まだアメリカにもどっていない。

Has not yet returned to America.

Example

あのえいがを見ている?

Have you seen that movie?

Example

手をあらっている?

Have you washed your hands?

Example

えいがを見ている?

The movie exists (now).

Example

えいがを見ている?

The movie exists (now) (and) been seen.

Example

いったことがあります。

I have gone before.

Example

よんだことがありますか。

Have you ever read?