Sentences in Japanese may be in active or passive form. The voice of a verb is a form or set of forms of a verb showing the relation of the subject to the action. A verb may take one of the following voices.

  • active
  • passive




Japanese has three voices, the causative voice, the passive voice, the potential voice. Although the causative and the potential are not members of voices according to a strict definition, Logical Japanese Grammar define them as members of voices, because these three voice are derived from ordinary verbs regularly. Then these derivative verbs change the rules of particles for cases. the subjective marker "ga", the object marker "ni", "o", comparing with the original verbs, while expressions for the polite and the tenses do not change the rules of particles for cases. The derivative verbs are unique to the verbs. The adjectival verbs and the copula do not have these derivations. All the derivative verbs are classified into the weak verbs.