Ethics are the moral principles that govern a person's or group's behaviour. Schools of ethics in Western philosophy can be divided, very roughly, into three sorts.

Aristotelian Ethics

Aristotelian ethics holds that the virtues (such as justice, charity, and generosity) are dispositions to act in ways that benefit both the person possessing them and that person's society.

Kantian Ethics

Kantian ethics makes the concept of duty central to morality: humans are bound, from a knowledge of their duty as rational beings, to obey the categorical imperative to respect other rational beings.


Utilitarianism asserts that the guiding principle of conduct should be the greatest happiness or benefit of the greatest number.